hallux valgus

Today’s entry continues with the foot, in this case with hallux valgus. Previously Morton’s neuroma and metatarsalgia, ankle sprain, etc. were treated. The injury of this entry occurs mainly in adults, and more in women. We are going to make a tour of this type of pathology, from the description, through what happens to the patient who presents it and ending with several solutions or recommendations.

What is hallux valgus?

Hallux valgus is also commonly known as bunion. It is defined as a valgus deviation of the big toe at the level of the metatarsophalangeal joint that triggers a prominence on the medial aspect of the head of the first metatarsal.

It’s the disease that most frequently affects the first metatarsophalangeal joint and is the most disabling deformity of the forefoot for the patient (about 20 percent or more of the population suffers from it). With early detection, the problem can be corrected if conservative treatment is started early. However, if the deformity is severe and painful, this therapeutic solution may not be of any benefit and surgical treatment may be necessary.

hallux valgus

What symptoms does hallux valgus cause?

The most frequent symptoms in the bunion are pain and disability, but if you want to list them you will find:

  • Painful swelling of the edge of the foot in the area of the junction of the toe with the rest of the foot.
  • Continuous and dull localized pain in the area.
  • Worsening of the symptomatology when walking.
  • Improvement of symptoms with rest and local heat.
  • Sensation of rubbing, snapping or crackling when moving the toe.
  • Deformity. Even rotation of the finger in the direction of the rest or overexposure with the second finger.
  • Reduction of the movement.
  • Appearance of liquid (in the base of the first finger).
  • Difficulty to put on shoes.
  • Swelling.
  • Calloused and reddened skin on the inner edge.

What causes hallux valgus?

The causes that provoke the highest percentage of cases are hereditary factors, inflammatory rheumatisms, alterations of the foot or the use of inadequate footwear.

In the first case, people who are predisposed to hallux valgus and suffer from some pathology affecting the bones are more likely to suffer from hallux valgus. The case of patients with inflammatory rheumatism, the first toe joint will be affected, probably developing the pathology in question over time.

In the latter case, we should not only think about women’s footwear, but also safety boots, the repeated use of sports footwear such as soccer boots, etc.

How can hallux valgus be prevented?

Therefore, prevention will consist of general care and modification of habits. They will be differentiated into three blocks according to the origin of the injury, but these guidelines are generic for all patients.

Genetic factors: biomechanical studies of the footprint from an early age, use of personalized insoles if it is necessary to modify the alignment of the foot.

Rheumatic diseases: use of bunion protectors or preventive conservative treatment guidelines.

Inadequate use of footwear or foot diseases: avoid narrow and high heeled shoes, strengthen the foot and leg musculature (exercise barefoot to improve pronation control).

How is hallux valgus diagnosed?

In most cases the diagnosis is made with a clinical examination. Anamnesis, observing, palpating and watching the patient walk can provide a clear diagnosis in most cases. In addition, the realization of a study of the footprint is recommended. Combined with other treatments (physiotherapy and medical) it will be very positive to approach the patient from a more global vision.

The rest of the tests are complementary and serve to refine the diagnosis and make decisions on the type of treatment. The most commonly used is radiography, which should be performed under load. In some very specific cases, other tests such as ultrasound or MRI can be performed, but in these cases a surgical solution is being considered.

What is the treatment for hallux valgus?

Within the treatment of hallux valgus there are two types: conservative treatment (palliative in most cases) and surgical treatment.

Conservative treatment combines medicine, physiotherapy, podiatry and orthotics. Initially, at the medical level, administration of anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics. Simultaneously, at the physiotherapeutic level, exercises, manual therapy, electrotherapy, thermotherapy and bandages. If the use of bandages is very repetitive, they can be replaced by reusable material. That is to say, at the orthotic and podiatric level by bunions, pads, toe separators, etc. In addition, the preventive measures that have been provided above (education in footwear, exercises and periodic evaluations) are recommended.

Surgical treatment is defined in many scientific articles as the curative treatment. More than 150 surgical techniques and variants have been described to date. The goal is always to eliminate foot discomfort/pain, minimize or eliminate the deformity and recover functionality.

How to perform a kinesiology taping for hallux valgus?

The video explains in detail all the technique to perform a kinesiology taping on the first toe. In this case a joint correction technique with two Y-straps.

 

How to make a functional taping for hallux valgus?

In the following video, you can obtain all the necessary information to make a functional tape bandage that corrects the position of the first toe joint. It is indicated for hallux valgus and painful problems of that toe.

In conclusion, it has been possible to observe the incidence of hallux valgus, what it consists of and what it causes. From there some guidelines to improve it and the use of several types of bandages. The use of these bandages will be adapted to the patient’s symptoms; it will serve as a complement at first, but if the deformity is recurrent and is not solved, it is more comfortable to replace the bandage with some type of orthosis.

 

 

Made by the Technical Department of Calvo Izquierdo S.L.

 

 

How to cite this blog:

    Bibliography:

    • Kase, J. Wallis, T. Kase (2003) Clinical therapeutic applications of the kinesio taping method, 2nd edition.
    • Kase, K. (2003) Illustrated Kinesio Taping, 4th edition.
    • Chao YW, et al. (2016). Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.
    • Kirby, AK. (2012) Biomechanics of the foot and lower extremity. Axon. 1st edition.
    • Bové, A. (2000) Functional taping. Harcourt. 3rd edition.
    • Selva, F. (2015) Neuromuscular Taping Manual of practical applications. Physi-Rehab-Kineterapy-Eivissa. 2nd edition.
    • Sijmonsma, J. (2007) Taping Neuro Muscular. Aneid Press, 1st Spanish edition.
    • Kendall’s (2007) Muscles, functional tests, posture and pain. Marbán. 5th edition.
    • Laffenetre, O. Fourteau, C. Darcel, V. Chauveaux, D. (2012) Hallux valgus: definition, pathophysiology, physical and radiographic examination, principles of treatment. EMN – Podiatry. Vol 14; 1-11.
    • Schur, A. (2008) Pocket guide. Functional bandages in sport. Taping. Medical guides.
    • Roces, JA. Mendiolagoitia, A. (2009) Gown pocket manual on functional bandages. KRK editions.
    • Zimaglia, C. (2018) Functional bandaging in orthopedic and sports traumatology. Edi-ermes. Ergan.

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